Determination of conductance of a strong acid (HCl)

Determination of conductance of a strong acid And Weak acid (HCl)

Chemicals Required:

The chemicals required are:

  • Acetic Acid
  • Hydro Chloric Acid
  • Distilled water


Required Glasswares:

  • 2 Measuring Flask(100 ml)
  • 2 Beakers(100&250 ml)
  • A Pipette (10ml)
  • A Measuring cylinder (50 ml)


Required apparatus:

  • A Conductivity meter
  • An Electrical Balance
  • Iron Stand
  • Clamp


Conductance is an expression of these ions due to which current flows through a substance. Conductance is shown by an upper case letter “G”.
The reciprocal of resistance is called conductance.
Conductance= 1/Resistance
The units used for conductance are ohm-1 or mho. Its unit is also known as Siemens.


It can be defined as:
If a current of one ampere passes through a conductor/ mixture across which a voltage of one volt exists then conductance is known as one Siemens.

Factors of Conductance:

The conductance of solution is due to:

  • Number of ions
  • Movements of ions

In general, when the applied voltage is held constant, the current In a DC is directly proportional to the conductance. When the numbers of ions increase the conductance due to ions also increases.

Conductivity meter:

An electrical conductivity meter measures the electrical conductivity in a solution in ionic forms. Basically, movements of ions produce the conduction. The conductivity meter has two modes.

  • Conductance mode
  • Resistance mode

Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the endpoint of titration that includes ions. A conductivity meter or Conductometry has a sensor in the electrodes that measure the conductance.

Determination of conductance of a strong acid And Weak acid (HCl)


Conductivity meter which measures the conductivity, two plates are placed in the sample solution and a potential is applied across the plates i.e. normally a sine wave voltage, and the current that passes through the solution is measured.

Calibrations of conductivity meter:

There are some manufacturing faults in equipment which lead to wrong readings and further calculations.
So calibration is required for correct and accurate readings. Following steps are necessary to calibrate a conductivity meter, which is easy and standardized:

  • The conductivity meter usually contains a menu item that allows to enter the calibration mode
  • Change the setting on the side that can be adjusted with a small screwdriver or tool
  • Now place the probe in a solution of known conductivity value and temperature and set the meter to that conductivity


  • Glassware which was used in this experiment was washed with detergents to remove the impurities and rinsed first with tap water then with distilled water and dried properly
  • Solutions of different concentrations of HCl and CH3COOH were prepared
  • Conductometer was calibrated by dipping its electrode in distilled water. It was managed at conductance mode
  • First of all the conductance of different concentrations of weak electrolyte i.e. CH3COOH was measured
  • For this purpose 50ml of CH3COOH solution of 0.1M was taken in a beaker and an electrode of Conductometer was dipped in it and noticed the readings
  • The same procedure was repeated for all concentrations of CH3COOH required for the experiment
  • Now the conductance of HCl solutions of all concentrations was found one by one
  • All readings were taken separately

Determination of conductance of a strong acid And Weak acid (HCl)

Observations and calculations:

Solution preparation:
Required concentrations of weak electrolyte
Required concentrations of CH3COOH

  • C1=0.1M
  • C2=0.2M
  • C3=0.3M
  • C4=0.4M
  • C5=0.5M

Required Weight =molarity× molecular weight×
Amount of compound = V/1000
Amount of compound = 0.1 × 60 × 100 /1000
Amount of compound = 0.6 g
Basically, acetic acid (CH3COOH) is available in solution form or liquid form. So we need to find out the volume.
Density of acetic acid = 1.05 g cm-3
Purity of acetic acid = 100%
Required Volume = Mass / Density
Required Volume = 60 / 1.05
Required Volume = 57.14 ml
So we need the volume for 0.6 g
As we know
60 g of acetic acid contains by volume = 57.14 ml
1 g of acetic acid contains by volume = 57.14 ml / 60
0.6g of acetic acid contains by volume =57.14 ml/60 × 0.6
= 0.6 ml
Because acetic acid is 100% pure so 0.6 ml of acetic acid was taken from the reagent bottle with the help of a measuring cylinder and poured into a 100 ml measuring flask and diluted with distilled water up to the mark.
Similarly, all required concentrations were prepared with the same procedure.
Required concentrations of strong electrolyte
Concentrations of (HCl)

Percentage purity of HCl=31.5%
Density of HCl=1.16g/cm3

Amount of HCl in 1M solution in 1000ml=36.5g
Amount of HCl in 1M solution in 1ml=36.5/1000 g
Amount of HCl in 1M solution in 100ml=36.5×100/1000g
Amount of HCl in 0.1M solution in 100ml=3.65×0.1g
HCl is always available in solution form, so we have to find the volume of HCl.

Volume= Mass/Density
= 0.365/1.16
= 0.314ml

As solution of HCl is not 100% so further calculations must be carried out
Purity of HCl solution= 31.5%
31.5ml of HCl are present in = 100l
1ml of HCl is present in = 100/31.5ml
0.314ml of HCl is present in = 100×0.314/51.5ml
= 0.99ml = 1ml
So 1ml of HCl was taken with the help of a measuring cylinder and poured into a 100ml measuring flask and then filled the flask with distilled water up to the mark.
Similarly, all required concentrations were formed in a similar way.

Conductance of CH3COOH Concentration Conductance
1 O.1 1.5×104
2 O.2 1.6×104
3 0.3 1.7×104
4 0.4 1.9×104
5 0.5 2.1×104


Conductance of HCl Concentration
1 O.1 2.1×104
2 O.2 2.3×104
3 O.3 2.5×104
4 O.4 2.8×104
5 O.5 3.1×104



The conductance of a strong electrolyte is greater than the conductance of a weak electrolyte with a respective concentration.
The conductance increases with an increase in the molarity of an electrolyte.


  • Make solutions carefully because both acids can burn the skin if spit
  • Do not use tap water while making solutions of different concentration because tap water contains different ions which affects the concentrations, always use distilled water
  • Try to use a little number of chemicals and perform the experiment at lower concentrations
  • Avoid eating and drinking activities during lab performance
  • Gloves and glasses are necessary during lab experiments
  • Avoid horseplay during a lab experiment

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